Introduction to Chicago Manual
The text and examples in this guide are courtesy of OWL (Purdue Online Writing Lab).
The Chicago style is a set of guidelinesfor writing research papers that meet a certain set of scholarly standards. For a detailed description of these standards, see The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.) available at the Reference Desk Z253 .U69 2010 and online: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/home.html
Below is a list of works cited by format, according to the Chicago style.
Note: Chicago style requires that you create two lists of references -- Notes and Bibliography (NB), each on its own page, after the last page of your text.
Line spacing (from The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed., Ch. 2.8): Though authors may prefer to use minimal line spacing on the screen, publishers have customarily required that any printout be double-spaced—including all extracts, notes, bibliography, and other material. The extra line spacing is crucial for manuscripts edited with pencil on paper, and some publishers will choose to edit the paper copy and update the electronic files based on this edited copy. (Authors concerned about saving paper are encouraged to consult with their publishers about line-spacing requirements.) Avoid extra space or blank lines between paragraphs. If such a break is intended to appear in the printed version, indicate this explicitly with three asterisks set on a line by themselves.
In the NB system, you should include a note (endnote or footnote) each time you use a source, whether through a direct quote or through a paraphrase or summary. Footnotes will be added at the end of the page on which the source is referenced, and endnotes will be compiled at the end of each chapter or at the end of the entire document.
In either case, a superscript number corresponding to a note with the bibliographic information for that source should be placed in the text following the end of the sentence or clause in which the source is referenced.
The first note for each source should include all relevant information about the source: author’s full name, source title, and facts of publication. If you cite the same source again, the note need only include the surname of the author, a shortened form of the title (if more than four words), and page number(s).
If you cite the same source and page number(s) from a single source two or more times consecutively, the corresponding note should use the word “Ibid.,” an abbreviated form of the Latin “ibidem,” which means “in the same place.” If you use the same source but a different page number, the corresponding note should use “Ibid.” followed by a comma and the new page number(s).
In the NB system, the footnote or endnote itself begins with the appropriate number followed by a period and then a space. In Turabian style, the footnote or endnote begins with a superscript number.