Google Special Syntaxes
Google offers some extensive special syntaxes for narrowing your searches. Special syntaxes are commands that let Google users search specific parts of web pages or specific types of information. Specifying that your query words must appear only in the title or URL of a returned web page is a great way to have your results get very specific without making your keywords themselves too specific.
SEARCH ONLY THE TITLES OF WEBPAGES
intitle: restricts your search to the titles of web pages. The variation, allintitle: finds pages wherein all the words specified make up the title of the web page. It’s probably best to avoid the allintitle: variation because it doesn’t mix well with some of the other syntaxes.
Eg: intitle:"george bush"
allintitle:"money supply" economics
SEARCH ONLY THE URLs OF WEBPAGES
“inurl:”, “allinurl:” restricts your search to the URLs of web pages. This syntax tends to work well for finding search and help pages, because they tend to be rather regular in composition. An allinurl: variation finds all the words listed in a URL but doesn’t mix well with some other special syntaxes.
SEARCH ONLY BODY TEXT
intext:searches only body text (i.e., ignores link text, URLs, and titles). There’s an allintext: variation, but again, this doesn’t play well with others. While its uses are limited, it’s perfect for finding query words that might be too common in URLs or link titles.
SEARCH WITHIN A SITE
site: allows you to narrow your search by either a site or a top-level domain. AltaVista, for example, has two syntaxes for this function (host: and domain:), but Google has only the one.
You can also use site: operator to exclude certain domains from a search.
Eg: google -site:google.com
This is particularly useful for ego searches. You can find out all those sites which mention your name except your site.
Eg: bill gates -site:microsoft.com -site:wikipedia.org
PAGES THAT LINK TO A SPECIFIC URL
link: returns a list of pages linking to the specified URL. Enter link:www.google.com and you’ll be returned a list of pages that link to Google. Don’t worry about including the http:// bit; you don’t need it, and, indeed, Google appears to ignore it even if you do put it in. link: works just as well with “deep” URLs-http://www.raelity.org/apps/blosxom/ for instance-as with top-level URLs such as raelity.org.
cache: finds a copy of the page that Google indexed even if that page is no longer available at its original URL or has since changed its content completely. This is particularly useful for pages that change often. If Google returns a result that appears to have little to do with your query, you’re almost sure to find what you’re looking for in the latest cached version of the page at Google.
SPECIFIC FILE TYPES
filetype: searches the suffixes or filename extensions. These are usually, but not necessarily, different file types. I like to make this distinction because searching for filetype:htm and filetype:html will give you different result counts, even though they’re the same file type. You can even search for different page generators, such as ASP, PHP, CGI, and so forth-presuming the site isn’t hiding them behind redirection and proxying. Google indexes several different Microsoft formats, including: PowerPoint (PPT), Excel (XLS), and Word (DOC).
Eg: homeschooling filetype:pdf
"leading economic indicators" filetype:ppt
related: finds pages that are related to the specified page. Not all pages are related to other pages. This is a good way to find categories of pages; a search for related:google.com would return a variety of search engines, including HotBot, Yahoo!, and Northern Light.
define: will get the definition of the term that you have entered. This syntax can be used to get the definitions of words, phrases, and acronyms.
This query will get you the definition of the word dreaming
If you want to search for a range of numbers then you can use two dots (without spaces) to represent a range of numbers.
Eg: inventions 1850..1899
This query will get you all the inventions between 1850 and 1899
If you include safesearch: in your query, Google will exclude adult-content.
This will search for information on breasts without returning adult or pornographic sites.
If you start your query with stocks:, Google will interpret the rest of the query terms as NYSE, NASDAQ, AMEX, or mutual fund stock ticker symbols and will open a page showing stock information for the symbols you specify.
This will show information about Google’s stock. Specify ticker symbols not company names. If you enter an invalid ticker symbol, you’ll be told so and given a link to a page where you can look up a valid ticker symbol.