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Library Life

MLA Citation

Author

Author

Use both the author's last name and the page number. 

If you are using a direct quote (using the author's exact words) put quotation marks around the author's words.

 

"There were 350,000 women in uniform and an estimated 6.5 million at work in war-related jobs on the home front" (Brokaw 137).

OR

As Brokaw explains, "there were 350,000 women in uniform and an estimated 6.5 million at work in war-related jobs on the home front" (137).

 

Paraphrasing (putting the author's idea in your own words) does not need quotation marks.

 

Thousands of women served in uniform and millions more supported the war effort by working civilian jobs (Brokaw 137).

OR

Brokaw explained that thousands of women also served in uniform and millions more supported the war effort by working civilian jobs (137).

 

No Author

 

No Author

If there is no author mentioned (very common with websites) use a shortened version of the title. If you are using one article/page from a website, put the article/page title in quotes. If you are citing the entire website, put the website title in italics. If there is no page number just leave it out.

 

Article/Page from Website Examples (page numbers):

"Many of the fish we enjoy are in trouble due to destructive fishing and farming practices" ("Sushi Consumer Guide" 1).

OR

According to the Monterey Bay Aquarium "Sushi Consumer Guide" "many of the fish we enjoy are in trouble due to destructive fishing and farming practices" (1).

 

Entire Website Example (no page number):

"Ninety percent of the world's fisheries are now fully exploited, over-exploited or have collapsed" (Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch).

Different Authors With Same Last Name

Different Author, Same Last Name

Provide each author's first initial.  If they share the same first initial, provide the full first name.

Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children (R. Miller 12), others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration (A. Miller 46).

 

Same Author, Two Different Works

One Author, Two Different BooksIf you are quoting from two different works by the same author, include a shortened version of the title.  Remember the Author's last name can go either in the body of the sentence or within parentheses. The book title must be in italics.

Book Examples: 

Austen could not have written two characters more different in temperament, Emma is described as "having rather too much her own way" (Emma 5), whereas Anne is described as someone whose "object was, not to be in the way of any body" (Persuasion 160).

OR

Emma is described as "having rather too much her own way" (Austen, Emma 5), whereas Anne is described as someone whose "object was, not to be in the way of any body (Austen, Persuasion 160).

Article titles must be in quotation marks.

Article Examples:

Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children ("Too Soon" 38), though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year ("Hand-Eye Development" 17).

The Bible

 

BibleThe first time you quote from a specific Bible, include the title of the edition in italics.  Then cite the book, chapter, and verse.  (To see a list of abbreviations of books of the Bible visit the guide at Grove City Library.)

During his Sermon on the Mount, Jesus said "blessed are the merciful: they shall have mercy shown them" (New Jerusalem Bible, Matt. 5.5.).

If you quote from the same edition later in your paper you only need to cite the book, chapter, and verse and do not need the edition title.

Jesus reassured a woman who was healed of her hemorrhage by touching his cloak "your faith has restored you to health; go in peace and be free of your complaint" (Mark 5.34).

eBook

ebookSince the page number of ebooks are not consistent (i.e. they change depending on the device and font settings) you should not use page numbers for in-text citations.  One option is to use chapter numbers if they are provided.

According to Anbinder, Americanization was seen as a pathway to societal acceptance and prosperity (ch. 4).